By F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)

ISBN-10: 940175845X

ISBN-13: 9789401758451

ISBN-10: 9401763100

ISBN-13: 9789401763103

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4. The Epidemiological Bonitation of Ceratitis capitata We shall now apply modern methods to the epidemiological bonitation of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata 28 • We may define bonitation as the estimate of numerical development of an animal at any given locality or season, and its menace of danger if it is an agricultural or medical pest. 4 1,218 15 19 27 45 130 33 43 59 98 287 54 60 97 160 469 Hyperbola B represents the epidemiological average of annual generations. But a few individual flies may survive for periods much longer than those given by hyperbola C, and those few survivors are of paramount importance for the maintenance of the species during unfavourable seasons, in which suitable hosts are rare or absent.

H. II I .. 4 80 445 1 -1 1 1/3 0 1 1/3 .. 5 55 43 xii .. 2 1/3 .. 3 1/3 2 0 2 0 .. 2 0 .. 1 2 2 2 .. 6 80 1 2 .. 0 60 58 xi 3 1/3 .. 8 72 69 38 1 ix 3 0 .. 2 0 2 1/3 1 1/3 .. 1 .. 1 .. viii 1 .. vii 1 .. 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1/3 .. 2 67 96 .. 9 70 131 ii Table VIII. Complete Ceratitis-bonitatio n of an Orange Grove in the Neighbourhood of Tel Aviv in 1932 and 1934 § 61 In Tel Aviv climatic conditions are favourable to optimal all the year round. In 1932 they were favourable, except for December. The rain-factor is only slightly unfavourable in January.

The total adult longevity was 523 days on the average, including 170 days oviposition, with 230 eggs per female. The maintenance of the species is thus well safeguarded. The poor season (autumn and winter) is passed by the immature adults, and adult longevity is long enough to permit oviposition throughout spring and summer. The development of a fraction of the offspring is achieved even after a sequence of a few unfavourable months. In Epilachna chrysomelina 15 , a pest of cucurbitaceous plants, there are six months of development and six months of hibernation.

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Animal Ecology To-Day by F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)

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