By Roger French

ISBN-10: 0203974166

ISBN-13: 9780203974162

ISBN-10: 0415088801

ISBN-13: 9780415088800

В этом исследовании автор показывает, что древнее естествознание было собранием и представлением историй и феноменов, достойных упоминания философами, популяризаторами или торговцами чудесами. В этой книге исследуются отношения между физическим миром, богами, греческой философией и целями тех, кто выражал весьма различные понятия о «природе». Основное внимание автора уделено «Истории животных» Аристотеля, «Естественной истории растений» Теофраста, «Географии» Страбона, а также, в некоторой степени, «Естественной истории» Плиния Старшего. Одна из основных тем книги - то, как к естествознанию относились различные общества: греки, римляне, евреи и христиане.Образцы сканов:

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В этом исследовании автор показывает, что древнее естествознание было собранием и представлением историй и феноменов, достойных упоминания философами, популяризаторами или торговцами чудесами. В этой книге исследуются отношения между физическим миром, богами, греческой философией и целями тех, кто выражал весьма различные понятия о «природе».

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Thereafter the main line passes through the works on the parts, causes, motion and generation of animals. 103 The second route begins with Aristotle’s work on the soul, De Anima. There are few cross-references between this work and the early physical works and it is difficult to tell if this ‘route’ ran in parallel with the first or was somehow silently accommodated within it. De Anima leads directly to a text on the senses and things sensed, De Sensu et Sensato. This is a station with abundant connections to the later animal books and to the group of treatises that describe the special ANCIENT NATURAL HISTORY 31 actions of the soul, like memory and sleep, and aspects of life, of which soul was the principle, like respiration, youth, old age and death.

Just as it is in the nature of a house to shelter people, so the nature of a thing provides the necessities for achieving the goal, the appearance and preservation of the natural thing. 32 The ‘material cause’ of a house is the bricks and mortar and wood. The material cause of living things is the irreducible matter of which they are composed, which Aristotle considered to be the simplest parts. These were the homogeneous parts, incapable of division into anything simpler; he is in part continuing the argument against the atomists.

They were obviously intended by Aristotle and his colleagues as a group of works, directly related in their methods, designed to cover all aspects of the natural world, and proceeding from first principles to the most elaborate physical substrate in which those principles were seen in operation. 34 Scholars cannot agree on the order in which Aristotle wrote his books, and so cannot arrive at a notion of how he might have announced and then carried out a programme of investigation into the natural world.

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Ancient Natural History by Roger French


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