By Ulf Dieckmann, Johan A. J. Metz, Maurice W. Sabelis, Karl Sigmund
This monograph takes inventory of our present wisdom at the evolutionary ecology of infectious illnesses, and units out the ambitions for the administration of virulent pathogens. during the textual content, the elemental recommendations and strategies underlying the versions are conscientiously defined in a special sequence of built-in containers.
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Additional resources for Adaptive Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: In Pursuit of Virulence Management
1996), the overall results are similar. How waterborne transmission rates affect virulence To further investigate the effects of waterborne transmission on virulence, sensitivity analyses were performed with respect to χ = βW c/m. 6 shows how pathogen-induced mortality changes with the percentage of waterborne transmission. 6). A similar acceleration occurs whether ρ is assumed to be a linear function of α or a saturating function of α. 6. , if ρ is not an increasing function of α), the positive correlation between percentage of waterborne transmission and virulence vanishes.
A further study on parthenogenetic and sexual geckos by Moritz et al. (1991) shows that parthenogenetic animals are indeed more likely than their sexually reproducing conspecifics to be infected with ectoparasitic mites. Sexual reproduction may also be important in increasing diversity in the parasite population, allowing sexual pathogens to continually challenge the host’s immune response. On the other hand, host genetic diversity may have an important role in modifying epidemiological patterns in wildlife populations that are usually ascribed to other causes (Read 1995).
A large number of studies (most theoretical, some empirical) have examined how sexual reproduction could confer an advantage through the production of offspring with higher levels of genetic diversity. This diversity effectively blunts the ability of pathogens to rapidly exploit any common genetic variety of host. Two field studies on snails suggest that parasites can indeed influence the level of sexual versus parthenogenetic reproduction (Anderson and Crombie 1985; 3 · Wildlife Perspectives on the Evolution of Virulence 33 Lively 1992): parthenogenetic reproduction is employed at low parasitic loads, while sexual reproduction is favored when there is a high risk of parasitism.
Adaptive Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: In Pursuit of Virulence Management by Ulf Dieckmann, Johan A. J. Metz, Maurice W. Sabelis, Karl Sigmund