By J. Stewart Cameron
This e-book tells the intense tale of ways the functionality of the 1st- and up to now virtually the one- human organ used to be changed via a computer, and the ''artificial kidney'' entered scientific and public folk-lore. a pragmatic articial kidney, or dialyser, got here through advances in technological know-how by way of the purchase of latest artificial fabrics which made the appliance of those principles attainable. but it used to be the commitment and patience of a couple of proficient pioneers who pressed forward opposed to specialist oppostion to be successful, first within the remedy of transitority, recoverable kidney failure, after which everlasting renal shut-down which made it successful. the plain excessive fee and restricted availability of this kind of remedy instantly raised moral questiond which had by no means been puzzled earlier than, centering round fairness of entry to remedy, whilst and if remedy may be denied, and- worst of all- the agonising determination of while, as soon as confirmed, it may be stopped. Spiralling charges because the precise variety of individuals with kidney failure grew to become obtrusive raised significant political and fiscal questions, which have been addressed in numerous nations in numerous methods which mirrored- but additionally helped swap- styles of ways treatment is equipped. In constructed nations, the matter can be solved by means of allocating a disproportionate sum of money to the therapy of quite few kidney sufferers, yet within the constructing global the price of remedy nonetheless limits its availability, because it does all kinds of sleek overall healthiness care. however, at the present time nearly a million humans world-wide are maintained alive following terminal kidney failure, thirds of them by means of quite a few sorts of dialysis and the remaining bearing kidney transplants, regularly positioned after a interval on dialysis. the tale is additionally the sum of the customarily heroic lives of those thousands of sufferers, some of whom have this day been maintained alive and energetic for greater than 35 years, and lots of of whom suffered identified, but additionally unforeseen issues because of their therapy.
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Extra info for A History of the Treatment of Renal Failure by Dialysis
Anurie expérimentale et potassium. L’épopée de Felz et Ritter. Néphrol Hier Aujourd’hui 1994; 3: 9–13. See also: Larcan A. L’urémie expérimentale, l’apport décisif de Felz et Ritter. Hist Sci Méd 1990; 2: 133–9. 35. Volhard F. Die doppelseitigen Nierenkrankheit. In: Mohr L, Staehlin R, eds. Handbuch der inneren Medizin, Bd. 3/II: Nieren und ableitende Harnwege, Springer, Berlin 1918: 1149–72, 1911. 36. Oppenheimer BS, Fishberg AM. Hypertensive encephalopathy. Arch Intern Med 1928; 41: 264–78. 37.
In retrospect one can see that soon after this time someone would hit upon the idea of in vivo dialysis of blood. The individual who thought of this first and applied the idea was John Jacob Abel. In vivo dialysis in animals Despite much information on his laboratory and its aims it is not clear how Abel (1857–1938) (Fig. 1a) came to think of doing in vivo dialysis of blood, or what his precise purpose was in performing his experiments . However, he must have been aware of the extensive literature on dialysis as a laboratory tool for the preparation of substances from complex solutions.
In: Cavalier G, ed. Elementiae chemiae, Vol. 1. Paris, 1733: 37. 9. Rouelle le Cadet H. Observations sur l’urine humaine et sur celle de vache et de cheval comparées ensemble. J Med Chir etc. 1773; 60: 451–68. 10. Fourcroy AF, Vauquelin N. Mémoire pour servir à l’histoire naturelle chimique et médicale de l’urine humaine. Mém Insitut 1797; 2: 431 (4 Avril). 11. Fourcroy AF, Vauquelin N. Premier mémoire pour servir à l’histoire naturelle, chimique et médicale, de l’urine humaine contenant quelques faits nouveaux sur son analyse et son altérations spontanée.
A History of the Treatment of Renal Failure by Dialysis by J. Stewart Cameron