By Wayne Biddle
From the ravages of the Ebola virus in Zaire to outbreaks of pneumonic plague in India and drug-resistant TB in big apple urban, contagious illnesses are scuffling with again opposed to once-unconquerable glossy drugs. Public predicament approximately infectious illness is at the upward thrust as newspapers trumpet the arrivals of latest germs and the reemergence of previous ones.
In A box consultant to Germs, Pulitzer Prize-winning technological know-how author Wayne Biddle brings readers nose to nose with approximately 100 of the best-known (in phrases of incidence, strength, old significance, or perhaps literary curiosity) of the myriad pathogens that reside in and round the human inhabitants. in addition to actual descriptions of the organisms and the afflictions they reason, the writer presents folklore, philosophy, historical past, and such illustrations as 19th century drawings of plague-induced panic, microscopic photos of HIV and Ebola, and wartime posters caution servicemen opposed to syphilis and gonorrhea.
From cholera to chlamydia, TB to HIV, bubonic plague to Lyme illness, rabies to Congo-Crimean encephalitis, anthrax to Zika fever, and again to strong outdated rhinitis (the universal cold), A box consultant to Germs is either a convenient reference paintings to raised comprehend today's headlines and a desirable examine the magnificent impression of micro-organisms on social and political history.
Winner of the yankee scientific Writers Association's Walter C. Alvarez Honor Award.
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Additional resources for A Field Guide to Germs (Revised and Updated Edition)
Each vaccine candidate offers a scenario that may arise in the process of developing and delivering a new preventive vaccine. These scenarios may include decision points that arise in the development and distribution of a vaccine that is aimed at a particular disease and that has certain intended health and economic benefits. Because vaccines for human papillomavirus, rotavirus, and pneumococcal infection currently exist, the committee considered their inclusion in the model as providing test examples of the process one goes through in developing improved vaccines by such methods as including adjuvants, increasing effectiveness, or reducing doses.
The situation has recently changed with the finding that the immunity created by the acellular vaccines appears to be not as long-lasting as the immunity from the whole cell vaccine. Now, with the shortcomings of the pertussis vaccines apparent, funding agencies are being asked to support research in the biology of pertussis, and regulatory agencies are being requested to find innovative ways to license new pertussis vaccines in the absence of efficacy trials. However, private industry has little incentive to invest in this work because a company cannot justify investing in a new full-fledged development program without proof of concept, a clear regulatory strategy, a price point advantage or an authoritative use recommendation that will generate a return on its investment.
Decision makers in different areas look at different factors in making their decisions. Industrial executives, for instance, may need to first evaluate the technical feasibility and the projected efficacy of a new vaccine and then decide whether the investment in a particular vaccine provides better return to the investors than an investment in other options, such as therapeutic drugs, where profit margins are usually higher. Funders of vaccine research, development, and implementation prioritize different vaccines in different countries for different reasons.
A Field Guide to Germs (Revised and Updated Edition) by Wayne Biddle